urinalysis n : (medicine) the chemical analysis of urine (for medical diagnosis) [syn: uranalysis] [also: urinalyses (pl)]
A urinalysis (or "UA") is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. A part of a urinalysis can be performed by using urine dipsticks, in which the test results can be read as color changes.
Medical urinalysisA typical medical urinalysis usually includes:
- a description of color and appearance.
- specific gravity - normally 1.010 to 1.030. This test detects ion concentration of the urine. Small amounts of protein or ketoacidosis tend to elevate results of the specific gravity.
- pH - normally 4.8 to 7.5.
- ketone bodies - normally negative (absent)
- protein - normally negative (absent)
- glucose - normally negative (absent)
- RBC number
- WBC number
- hCG - normally absent, this hormone appears in the urine of pregnant women. Home pregnancy tests commonly detect this substance.
Microscopic examinationThe numbers and types of cells and/or material such as urinary casts can yield a great detail of information and may suggest a specific diagnosis.
- eosinophiluria - associated with allergic interstitial nephritis, atheroembolic disease
- RBC casts - associated with glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, malignant hypertension
- WBC casts - associated with acute interstitial nephritis, exudative glomerulonephritis, severe pyelonephritis
- (heme) granular casts - associated with acute tubular necrosis
- crystalluria -- associated with acute urate nephropathy (or "Acute uric acid nephropathy", AUAN)
- calcium oxalate - associated with ethylene glycol toxicity
urinalysis in Danish: Urinprøve
urinalysis in Hebrew: בדיקת שתן
urinalysis in Polish: Badanie moczu
urinalysis in Portuguese: Uranálise
urinalysis in Russian: Клинический анализ мочи
urinalysis in Swedish: Urinprov
Pap test, anatomic diagnosis, biological diagnosis, biopsy, clinical diagnosis, cytodiagnosis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, digital examination, electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electromyography, examination, laboratory diagnosis, mammography, oral examination, physical diagnosis, physical examination, postmortem diagnosis, serodiagnosis, smear, study, test, uroscopy, work-up